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02 May 2012, 16:51   Report Abuse

Dhaval Patel


[ Scorecard : 7158]

Outsourcing means hiring or subcontracting other vendors or professionals to provide certain parts of an event for you. You can outsource specific tasks or products. Outsourcing makes good sense for small and medium-sized catering businesses that can't do everything in-house because they lack the skills or resources. Through outsourcing, a business can seem bigger than it actually is and provide its clients with total event solutions. Knowing how to outsource, when to outsource, and whom to outsource to are crucial skills for any small business owner.

03 May 2012, 17:57  

Jatin Pandya


[ Scorecard : 48]

 you are right mr patel..

04 May 2012, 14:46  

Dr. Anand Wadadekar

Educationist | Economist | Author

[ Scorecard : 8056]

 Can you please let us know, what is 'Offshoring'?



07 May 2012, 02:48  

Dhaval Patel


[ Scorecard : 7158]

Offshoring is a type of outsourcing. Offshoring simply means having the outsourced business functions done in another country. Frequently, work is offshored in order to reduce labor expenses. Other times, the reasons for offshoring are strategic -- to enter new markets, to tap talent currently unavailable domestically or to overcome regulations that prevent specific activities domestically.

India has emerged as the dominant player in offshoring, particularly in software work. Three factors came into play to make this possible. First, in the 1970s the Indian government put in place regulations that mandated that all foreign ventures have Indian majority ownership. Fearing government takeover, many large U.S. corporations, such as IBM, departed, leaving India in the position of fending for itself to maintain its technical infrastructures. This quickly forced the creation of schools to train students in technology.

Next came the global ubiquity of the Internet and massive telecommunications capacity, which enabled companies to get computer-based work done seemingly anywhere, including India.

Third, as the year 2000 approached, organizations hired service providers to update their legacy program code. Much of this work was handled in India, where English was commonly spoken, where there was a large and highly trained population of software engineers, and where labor costs were much lower than in developed countries. Y2K work proved the merits of an offshore labor force, and companies have continued tapping the talents and skills (and cost savings) made available by Indian offshore service providers. Major companies working as offshoring service providers in India include Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), Infosys and Wipro.

Russia, Ireland, Czechoslovakia and Poland have also surfaced as popular offshoring destinations for specific types of software expertise.

The Philippines, which has a highly literate and educated population, as well as language and cultural affinities with the United States, has become a popular offshoring region for call center and customer support work.

The dominant location for much of the manufacturing outsourcing (in the form of offshoring) by U.S. companies is China, which has made a push in recent years to also become a provider of services. The Chinese central government has made the "third industry" -- services -- a priority for its national development plans in the coming decades. English is taught in China starting in the third grade, and its technical schools and colleges graduate tens of thousands of software engineers annually.

At the same time that other countries were coming to the forefront in areas such as software and call center work, the United States was experiencing an economic downturn that struck in 2000 and 2001. The resulting job losses and insecurities created an offshoring backlash, especially among technical workers.

Both the potential for negative publicity and concerns about data security and privacy have prevented some companies from taking work offshore. However, that doesn't always prevent them from outsourcing. Rural sourcing -- having work done in domestic locations where salaries and operating expenses are lower (such as the Midwest for the United States) -- is an alternative for companies that want to avoid the negative aspects of offshoring.

Other Dimensions of Offshoring

Nearshoring is taking the outsourced work to a nearby country (such as Canada, in the case of the United States). Nearshoring is a popular model for companies that don't want to deal with the cultural, language or time zone differences involved in offshoring.

Captive Centers are offshore companies set up by organizations to provide internal services and in some cases to sell those same services to clients. Often U.S. and European organizations set up captive centers for their outsourced work.

Multinational corporations (MNC) are service providers with offices in many countries, which enable them to serve a global market of clients and tap the labor arbitrage available by offshoring certain types of work. Among this category are IBM, EDS, CSC, HP, ACS, Accenture and Keane.

Advantages of Offshoring to India

Following are the key factors that contribute to India’s position as a preferred destination for offshore outsourcing:

  1. 1. Availability of large talent pool
  2. 2. Low cost
  3. 3. Fast turnaround time

Availability of a large pool of talented and motivated professionals India has a large pool of young talented professionals. Its 380 universities and 11,200 higher education institutions produce 2.1 million graduates each year. As a result, companies have sufficient options to choose from, while recruiting employees for their offshore captive centers. Further, it is expected that the number of people in the working age group in India will increase by 250 million from 2003 to 2020 at an average rate of about 15 million per year. This will ensure labor for companies in US and Europe where the demand for labor is increasing. India also has the largest English speaking population in the world. This ensures good communication between the customer and vendor when the work is outsourced to India.

Indian BPO employees are hard working and motivated. They are also satisfied with their work; this can be seen from the attrition rate in BPO in India. As shown in Table 3, attrition rate in BPO in India was 18 percent in 2003, significantly lower than that in other economies.

Table 3: BPO Attrition Rates
Country Attrition Rate (Percent)
US 42
Australia 29
Europe 24
India 18
World Average  
Source: Times New, New York (2003)

According to the Boston Consulting Group, access to the large talent pool and higher employee satisfaction translates into better employee performance (and cost savings on recruitment and training). This leads to a productivity increase of over 30 percent in India. Indians also produce superior quality of work. Research has found that error rates in accounting were reduced by 60 percent when the work was outsourced to India.

Significant cost advantage

One of the biggest advantages of offshoring to India is cost savings. Companies have been able to save about 30 to 40 percent for most services by outsourcing processes to India. Cost savings in India can be accounted for by savings in the following three heads:

  1. Labor: Indian professionals work at wages much lower than that in the US and Europe.
  2. Capital: Infrastructure costs in India are lower thus saving significantly on capital.
  3. Labor management: The number of employees required during a project is not same throughout the course of the project. Hence, when a business process is carried out in-house, companies have to pay the employees and maintain office space for them, even if these employees are not working on any project. Outsourcing enables companies to do-away with the expenditure on bench labor, as the outsourcing vendor allocates the bench employees to projects for other clients or bears the cost of inefficiency.

An excellent example of a company that has achieved cost savings by offshoring to India is General Electric (GE). After offshoring its BPO operations to India, GE found a reduction of 25 percent on its labor cost. This lead to an increase of 150 percent in the Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization (EBITDA). Table 2 provides the pre-offshoring and post-offshoring comparative figures.

Table 2. Effect of Offshoring to India on GE’s BPO Operations
  Pre-offshoring Post-offshoring Effect
Sales 100 100  
Labor 60 45 25 percent decrease
Materials 20 20  
SG&A 10 10  
EBITDA 10 25  
150 percent increase
FII View

There is a vast difference in the labor costs in US/Europe and India in the IT industry as well. An IT professional with 1-2 years of experience in the US and Europe charges USD 50,000 to 70,000 per year. On the other hand, a professional with same experience level costs about USD 8,000 per year in India, about 11 to 16 percent of that in the US and Europe.

Fast turnaround time

In India, clinical trials are conducted in 30 percent less time, while there has been a backlog reduction of 50 percent in transcripttion processing. Also, India and the US have a zonal time difference of about 12 hours, thus effectively giving companies a 24 hours work environment. Most of the processing functions are performed during the day time in India, when it is night time in the developed countries. As a result of this zonal time difference, there is no or little backlog in the front end and processing tasks.

The advantage of this zonal time difference is more prominent in IT outsourcing. Many IT projects have onsite and offsite teams. The onsite team works during the day at the client site and hands over the work to the Indian team before retiring to bed. The offsite team then works on the same project as it is day time in India. When the Indian team retires to bed, the onsite team takes over the work, thus significantly reducing the project turnaround time. Nortel Networks, an IT firm headquartered in Canada, started its operations in India to harness the benefits of the time difference between India and Canada, along with cost savings.

The Indian government also offers tax holidays under Section 10A and 10B of Income-tax Act on various IT enabled products and services. These services include back-office operations, call centers, payroll, data processing, geographic information system, human resource and training, insurance claim processing, legal services, medical transcripttion, engineering and design, accounting, administration and support, and content development.


07 May 2012, 22:55  

Dhaval Patel


[ Scorecard : 7158]

its ok mr anand...?

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